Diabetes mellitus and its types
mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases of the era. It occurs either because of the pancreatic insufficiency to produce insulin or the body’s inability to use it efficiently or both. this is considered that nearly half of the deaths before reaching the age of 70 years are due to diabetes or high blood glucose levels.
Following are some of the different types of diabetes mellitus:
- Pre-diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance
Pre-diabetes is a warning manifested by moderately high blood glucose levels. It is a subclinical stage in which there are no apparent signs and symptoms, but the fasting blood glucose levels remain in between 100-125 mg/dl. and the 2-hour postprandial blood glucose levels remain in between the 140-199 mg/dl.
Risk factors: for prediabetes include BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, age ≥ 45, parental history of type-2 diabetes, physical inactivity or sedentary lifestyle, history of gestational diabetes and baby weighing more than 9 pounds at the time of birth.
- Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or previously known juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes
Type-1 diabetes occurs when the immune system destroys all the insulin-producing pancreatic cells, own their own. This type of diabetes is an autoimmune disease and may remain asymptomatic for months and even years. Moreover, there is always a need for the daily administration of insulin.
A person having following symptoms may have type-1 diabetes.
- Polyuria (excessive urination).
- Polydipsia (excessive thirst).
- Persistent hunger.
- Weight loss.
- Blurry vision.
- Electrolyte disturbance.
Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) or type 1.5 diabetes
LADA is a subtype of type-1 diabetes but progresses in the same fashion as type-2 diabetes progresses. In this type of diabetes, beta cells of pancreas become impaired, thus no insulin and ultimately hyperglycemia. However, LADA does not require any outer aid of insulin as it progresses slower than type-1 diabetes.
Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or previously knownnon-insulin-dependent, or adult-onset
Type-2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes that usually occurs when the body’s cells become insensitive to the insulin, thus resulting in unusually high blood glucose levels. As per the recent data, around 90-95% of total diabetics, usually are with type-2 diabetes. Most people with type-2 diabetes are overweight or obese.
Risk factors : include BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, age ≥ 45, being prediabetic, parental history of type-2 diabetes, sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits. Also, intake of medications like steroids or statins, history of gestational diabetes, baby weighing more than 9 pounds at the time of birth, hypertension or dyslipidemia, and race or ethnicity.
Symptoms: are same as of type-1 diabetes but are usually less noticeable.
- Gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes (GDM)
GDM is a condition of hyperglycemia that usually occurs in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. It can lead to several severe conditions like pre-eclampsia which is high blood pressure during pregnancy, C-section, macrosomia (a term used for the babies born larger than other normal babies) and increases the risk of complications. Further, such women and their children are at risk of having type-2 diabetes in later life.
Risk factors : for GDM include the previous history of gestational diabetes, the baby born weighing more than 9 pounds, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 before pregnancy, family history of type-2 diabetes and having hormonal disorder (PCOS).